Energy performance of commercial c-Si PV modules in accordance with IEC 61853-1, -2 and impact on the annual specific yield
TÜV Rheinland (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., No. 177, Lane 777, West Guangzhong, 200072
Shanghai, P.R. China
2 TÜV Rheinland Taiwan Ltd., 11F., No. 758, Sec. 4, Bade Rd., Songshan Dist., Taipei 105, Taiwan
3 TÜV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH, Am Grauen Stein, 51105 Cologne, Germany
* e-mail: Christos.Monokroussos@tuv.com
Received in final form: 1 November 2022
Accepted: 9 December 2022
Published online: 27 January 2023
As energy yields of photovoltaic modules are highly related to local climate and ambient conditions, it is necessary to assess the energy-yield performance of PV modules under various operating conditions. This work compares commercial crystalline silicon (c-Si) based PV modules (including mono c-Si Al BSF, mono c-Si PERC, multi-crystalline (mc-Si) Al BSF, and n-type c-Si solar cells) sampled from 27 PV module manufacturers located in the Asia-Pacific region between 2016 and 2022. Several test items were compared including: (i) light-induced degradation (LID), (ii) irradiance-temperature-efficiency (GTE) matrix, (iii) angular response and (iv) temperature coefficients, which are correspondingly performed according to IEC 61215-1, -1-1, -2 and IEC 61853-1, -2. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was calculated to express the module-to-module differences within similar technology types. Benefiting from the technological innovation of c-Si based PV modules, emerging PV modules feature better performance in some extreme ambient conditions, such as low irradiance, high ambient temperature, and high ratio of diffuse irradiance. The analysis of CoV indicates that the difference of irradiance-dependent and thermal behavior between modules within the same technology may exceed the differences between different technologies. Using synthetic hourly meteorological data of 5 sites from MeteoNorm in PVsyst, the annual specific yield of four technology groups of PV modules were simulated and compared. Overall, it is shown that the maximum differences as large as 7.34% in terms of PV module's specific yield are expected within same PV technology, which exceeds the maximum difference of 2.16% obtained for specific yields of different PV technologies.
Key words: Energy performance / silicon-based PV modules / LID / angular response / temperature coefficient / GTE matrix / IEC 61853-1,-2 / PVsyst
© C. Monokroussos et al., Published by EDP Sciences, 2023
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.