Surface photovoltage characterisation of metal halide perovskite on crystalline silicon using Kelvin probe force microscopy and metal-insulator-semiconductor configuration
IPVF, Institut Photovoltaïque d’Ile-de-France, 18, Boulevard Thomas Gobert, 91120 Palaiseau, France
2 Université Paris-Saclay, CentraleSupélec, CNRS, Laboratoire de Génie Electrique et Electronique de Paris, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
3 Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Laboratoire de Génie Electrique et Electronique de Paris, 75252 Paris, France
4 Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, blvd. James Bourchier, 5, 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria
5 CNRS, École Polytechnique, IPVF, UMR 9006, 18, Boulevard Thomas Gobert, 91120 Palaiseau, France
* e-mail: email@example.com
Received in final form: 17 May 2022
Accepted: 13 June 2022
Published online: 10 August 2022
In this study we analysed halide perovskite films deposited directly on crystalline silicon by means of two set-ups using different operating modes of the surface photovoltage (SPV) methods, i.e., the Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) technique. The KPFM allowed to visualize surface potential distribution on a microscale while MIS technique allowed to study SPV spectral dependence. We studied wavelength dependent SPV of these samples, which allowed us to effectively vary the probe depth in the sample and discern the contribution from each interface to the overall effect measured under white light illumination. Depending on where the photocarriers are generated, different SPV signals are observed: at the perovskite/Si interface, the signal depends on Si doping type, while at the surface the SPV is always negative indicating downward surface band bending. This is confirmed by analysing SPV phase measured in the AC MIS mode. In addition, distinction between slow and fast processes contributing to measured SPV was possible. It has been observed, that with decreasing the illumination wavelength, the processes causing SPV become slower, which can indicate that high energy photons not only generate electronic photocarriers but can also induce chemical changes with creation of defects or ionic species that also modify the measured SPV.
Key words: Surface photovoltage / Kelvin probe force microscopy / metal halide perovskites / metal-insulator-semiconductor
© A. Bojar et al., Published by EDP Sciences, 2022
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