Quantifying the performance gain of 100 cm2 bifacial four terminal perovskite-Si tandem modules
TNO Energy Transition, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten, The Netherlands
2 TNO Energy Transition, High Tech Campus 21, 5656 AE Eindhoven, The Netherlands
3 Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
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Received in final form: 4 February 2022
Accepted: 3 March 2022
Published online: 25 May 2022
Improving the performance of solar modules requires the implementation of both spectral and directional irradiance optimization. The performance of bifacial four-terminal tandem minimodules with a 100 cm2 area is reported, both indoor and outdoor measurements. We demonstrate a 24.5 mW/cm2 (bifacial irradiance 200 W/m2) bifacial tandem power density, measured according to a tandem adapted IEC60904-1-2 protocol, which constitutes a 3 mW/cm2 gain with respect to monofacial use. In addition, we show that in outdoor measurements bifacial four terminal tandems outperform identical monofacial four terminal tandems by 26% on average, depending on incident angle, injection level and temperature, in a 10% albedo environment. The average gain is higher for outdoor performance than for indoor performance, due to variations in relative rear irradiance.
Key words: Four terminal tandem / bifacial modules / perovskite / outdoor performance
© P. Manshanden et al., Published by EDP Sciences, 2022
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.