KPFM surface photovoltage measurement and numerical simulation
IPVF, Institut Photovoltaïque d'Île-de-France, 30 route Départementale 128, 91120 Palaiseau, France
2 GeePs, UMR CNRS 8507, Centralesupélec, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Sorbonne Université, 11 rue Joliot Curie, Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif sur Yvette, France
3 ISC-Konstanz e.V., Rudolf-Diesel-Straße 15, 78467 Konstanz, Germany
4 EDF R&D, 30 Route Départementale 128, 91120 Palaiseau, France
* e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received in final form: 26 March 2019
Accepted: 29 April 2019
Published online: 6 June 2019
A method for the analysis of Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) characterization of semiconductor devices is presented. It enables evaluation of the influence of defective surface layers. The model is validated by analysing experimental KPFM measurements on crystalline silicon samples of contact potential difference (VCPD) in the dark and under illumination, and hence the surface photovoltage (SPV). It is shown that the model phenomenologically explains the observed KPFM measurements. It reproduces the magnitude of SPV characterization as a function of incident light power in terms of a defect density assuming Gaussian defect distribution in the semiconductor bandgap. This allows an estimation of defect densities in surface layers of semiconductors and therefore increased exploitation of KPFM data.
Key words: KPFM / SPV / surface defects / modeling and band bending
© C. Marchat et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2019
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.