Fabrication of solar cells based on Cu2ZnSnS4 prepared from Cu2SnS3 synthesized using a novel chemical procedure
1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia
2 Department of Chemistry, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia
3 Department of Chemistry Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia
4 Department of Physics, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia
Received: 1 July 2016
Received in final form: 17 September 2016
Accepted: 26 September 2016
Published online: 9 November 2016
Solar cells based on kesterite-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were fabricated using a chemical route to prepare the CZTS films, consisting in sequential deposition of Cu2SnS3 (CTS) and ZnS thin films followed by annealing at 550 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. The CTS compound was prepared in a one-step process using a novel chemical procedure consisting of simultaneous precipitation of Cu2S and SnS2 performed by diffusion membranes assisted CBD (chemical bath deposition) technique. Diffusion membranes were used to optimize the kinetic growth through a moderate control of release of metal ions into the work solution. As the conditions for the formation in one step of the Cu2SnS3 compound have not yet been reported in literature, special emphasis was put on finding the parameters that allow growing the Cu2SnS3 thin films by simultaneous precipitation of Cu2S and SnS2. For that, we propose a methodology that includes numerical solution of the equilibrium equations that were established through a study of the chemical equilibrium of the system SnCl2, Na3C6H5O7·2H2O, CuCl2 and Na2S2O3·5H2O. The formation of thin films of CTS and CZTS free of secondary phases grown with a stoichiometry close to that corresponding to the Cu2SnS3 and Cu2ZnSnS4 phases, was verified through measurements of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Solar cell with an efficiency of 4.2%, short circuit current of 16.2 mA/cm2 and open-circuit voltage of 0.49 V was obtained.
© Correa et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.