Ultrafast laser direct hard-mask writing for high efficiency c-Si texture designs
1 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 184 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E4, Canada
2 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 10 King’s College Rd. Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G4, Canada
Received: 5 October 2012
Accepted: 21 February 2013
Published online: 22 March 2013
This study reports a high-resolution hard-mask laser writing technique to facilitate the selective etching of crystalline silicon (c-Si) into an inverted-pyramidal texture with feature size and periodicity on the order of the wavelength which, thus, provides for both anti-reflection and effective light-trapping of infrared and visible light. The process also enables engineered positional placement of the inverted-pyramid thereby providing another parameter for optimal design of an optically efficient pattern. The proposed technique, a non-cleanroom process, is scalable for large area micro-fabrication of high-efficiency thin c-Si photovoltaics. Optical wave simulations suggest the fabricated textured surface with 1.3 μm inverted-pyramids and a single anti-reflective coating increases the relative energy conversion efficiency by 11% compared to the PERL-cell texture with 9 μm inverted pyramids on a 400 μm thick wafer. This efficiency gain is anticipated to improve further for thinner wafers due to enhanced diffractive light trapping effects.
© Kumar et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2013
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